Is there one area that allows you to view all information related to a certain part?

You can find good, part-specific information in a few different areas. Part Tracker would be a great place to start. This shows you the existing part record as well as on hand quantities, part allocations, etc.

There are a couple other areas in the system as well. One will ask and answer certain questions about the history of the part. Another will show you material requirements for any part over a span of time.